The RTC module is specifically designed for Raspberry Pi / Aruino compatible. It communicated with Raspberry Pi through I2C bus. There is a Maxim DS1307 and CR1220 button cell on the board to keep the real time for a
planar passivated sensitive gate 4-quadrant TRIAC for general purpose bidirectional switching and phase control applications. This series TRIAC is intended to be interfaced directly to microcontrollers, logic integrated circuits and other low power gate trigger circuits.
CD4077BE is a quad CMOS Exclusive-NOR Gate for use with logical comparators, adders/subtractors, parity generators and checkers. The CD4077B provide the system designer with a means for direct implementation of the Exclusive-OR and Exclusive-NOR functions, respectively.
The very popular 595 shift register chip of the 74 series is used a lot by hobbyis because of its wide availability, good speed and simplicity. Just plug it on an arduino like shown in the tutorials and youi have 8 more outputs, put two and you have 16 more outputs ! (up to a lot of them actually, with only three pins !)